High ratio emissions that outcome from incomplete combustion cause air contamination, poorer the performance of the spark ignition (SI) engine and raise fuel consumption. Uncompleted combustion emitted a high ratio of CO, HC, NOx and PM harmful emissions such as come into atmosphere. This study has reviewed existing engine simulation structures using different methods as s as follows Neural Networks (NN), Sliding Mode Control (SMC), Proportional–Integral (PI) Predictive Control (MPC) and DRNN-based MPC method. The existing engine models were compared with the new engine simulation structure model which was proposed by the authors, using Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Control (HFLC) method in term of AFR. The simulation engine model in Matlab/Simulink using new engine simulation has founded that AFR (15.02, 14.4) which closes to the stoichiometric value of 14.7 compared by using Neural Networks (NN) method, a Sliding Mode Control (SMC) method, a Proportional–Integral (PI) control method, Model Predictive Control (MPC) method and DRNN-based MPC method.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor, Malaysia
In the ocean, acoustic waves are transmitted into the subsurface ocean will experience scattering (scattering) caused by marine organisms, material distributed, the structure is not homogeneous in seawater, as well as reflections from the surface and the seabed. Estimation of fish stocks in the waters wide as in Indonesia have a lot of them are using the acoustic method. The acoustic method has high speed in predicting the size of fish stocks so as to allow acquiring data in real time, accurate and high speed so as to contribute fairly high for the provision of data and information of fishery resources. Split beam echo sounder comprises two aspects, and a transducer. The first aspect is the high-resolution color display for displaying echogram at some observations and also serves as a controller in the operation of the echo sounder. The second aspect is transceiver consisting of transmitter and receiver. The echosounder divided beam first inserted into the ES 3800 by SIMRAD beginning of the 1980s and in 1985 was introduced to fishermen in Japan as a tool for catching up. Split beam transducer is divided into four quadrants. Factors that contribute affect the value of Target Strength (TS) fish Strength target can generally be influenced by three factors: a target factor itself, environmental factors, and factors acoustic instrument.
Department of Informatics Engineering, Geomatics Engineering Batam Polytechnic, Batam Kepulauan Riau, 29461, Indonesia
The fracture behavior of coconut fibers reinforced polyester composite depends on different fibers orientation was experimentally investigated under static loading conditions. The static uniaxial tensile and flexural loading for three (random discontinuous, longitudinal and woven direction) coconut fibers reinforced polyester composite was implemented using servo hydraulic material testing machine. The microstructure was observed using SEM observation in order to better understand damage mechanism during the stress of polyester phase. SEM observation on fracture surface can provide important information for research and development as well as fracture analysis. It was found that fracture modes were considerably different for these composites. The random discontinuous coconut fibers composite fracture caused by defects in fiber pull out, the longitudinal coconut fibers composite fracture caused by matrix cracking and delamination, the woven coconut fibers fracture caused by debonding and void. Based on the SEM observation results, the fracture behavior was determined and it was found that static loading conditions and fiber direction influence the fracture surface of coconut fibers reinforced polyester composite.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universitas Riau, Indonesia